|Executive Summary |
This being the first observer report for the country, it is pleasing to note that all the indicators were calculated, although in some cases estimates were used.
Carbon emissions have decreased since 1990 due to reduced coal consumption. This will however be short-lived since there are plans to build more coal fired thermal power plants in the country to meet the increasing power demand. SO2 emissions from energy use and conversion are high. In the capital city, SO2 emissions, mainly from industry and transport sector, have been observed to be well above W.H.O. recommended levels. Access to electricity especially in rural areas in Zimbabwe, though by Sub-Saharan Africa levels is considered relatively high, remains very low. The Expanded Rural Electrification Program (EREP), recently embarked on, will see more and more people in rural areas having access to electricity in a short period of time. The country to a large extent relies on non-renewable energy imports in the form of fossil fuels and electricity from coal-fired thermal power stations. Development and promoting the use of an efficient public transport system in addition to the use of clean transport like non motorized bicycles can reduce fossil fuel consumption. Increasing internal electricity generation capacity will reduce electricity importation, which drains the much-needed foreign currency from the country. Zimbabwe's energy intensity remains 4 times the world average. This is due to the fact that contribution to the GDP is mainly from energy intensive sectors likes industry, mining, agriculture, and transport that use outdated and inefficient machinery. Although investment in clean energy has increased in value it remains very insignificant compared to the total investment in energy. Besides woodfuel, the deployment of other renewables in the country is very rudimentary. More efforts are needed to overcome barriers to renewable energy deployment.
The country is in the process of coming up with solid legislation on environment protection. It is envisaged that this piece of legislation will facilitate close control and monitoring of most environmental concerns like pollution that are in most cases related to energy issues. Below is a summary of the country's indicators for 1990 and 1998.
|1. CO2 emissions||406.4||0.09||313.6||-0.032||-23%||-136%|
|2. SO2 emissions||12.33|| ||10.43||0.83||-15%||N/A|
|3. Access to electricity||24%||0.76||36%||0.64||50%||-16%|
|4. Clean energy investments||0.008||-||0.0054||0.997||-32%||n.a.|
|5. Energy trade - imports||-||0.314||-||0.33||-||5%|
|6. Burden of energy investments||-||-||-||0.42||-||-|
|7. Energy Productivity ||43||4.39||40.13||4.08||-6.7%||-7%|
|8. Renewable energy||35.79%||0.686||34.92%||0.696||-2.43%||1.5%|
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