|Executive SummaryThe following table summarises the results of a review of the sustainability of Germans energy sector. Where: |
Indicator 1 = per capita carbon emissions from the energy sector
Indicator 2 = most significant energy related local pollutants
Indicator 3 = households with access to electricity
Indicator 4 = investment in clean energy
Indicator 5 = energy security/energy trade
Indicator 6 = burden of energy investments
Indicator 7 = energy productivity
Indicator 8 = renewable energy deployment
Prior to 1991 Germany was divided and economic statistics for what was then Eastern Germany were not available. As a result the base year for indicators 5 and 6 was taken as year 1991 when comparable statistics were available
Table A.1. Results for Germany According to HELIO International Indicators
|SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS FOR THE ENERGY SECTOR |
|X (1990)||3,430 ||SO2: 67.1 |
|X (1999)||2,770||SO2: 10.1 |
n/a : Statistics not available
In terms of the environmental indicators 1 and 2, Germany has made progress in reducing emissions of both global carbon dioxide emissions and local pollutants sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide. However, Germany only meets the HELIO International sustainability target for sulphur dioxide (for more details see section on Indicator 2) and needs to continue to make reductions in the other pollutants in order to meet the levels defined as sustainable. The positive results for sulphur dioxide, primarily reflect increased efficiencies achieved in the energy sector following stricter enforcement of the Federal Emissons Control Act and the Large Furnaces Ordinance following re-unification, as well as the significant shift away from heavy fuel oil, and lignite fuels (especially in Eastern Germany) to natural gas.
Germany has mixed results in terms of the social sustainability indicators 3 and 4. This is because whilst the target of 100% access to electricity in Germany was successfully attained, investment in clean energy is a long way from the HELIO International sustainability target of 95%. Increases in investments for clean energy as a percentage of GDP have only shown a marginal increase over the last 10 years and it seems unlikely that the target could be reached within the next decade.
Germany does not appear to be making much progress in improving the sustainability of economic policies governing the energy sector. The results for indicators 5 and 6 are a long way from the target levels for sustainability established by HELIO International, which require 0% investments in non-renewable energy imports and 0% government investment in non-renewable energy.
The technological indicators, like the social indicators, result in a mixed result. In terms of energy productivity, Germany has performed well achieving substantial decreases in wasteful energy consumption. However, Germany has to continue this trend if it will meet the the HELIO International target of 1.06MJ/$ GDP was obtained. It is recommended that Germany focus on improving energy efficiency where there are many opportunities for reducing wasteful energy consumption. In comparison the results for Indicator 8 are not so positive primarily because Germany remains firmly reliant on fossil fuels to meet national energy demand. This is revealed by the low levels of renewable energy deployment within Germany in Indicator 8. However, despite the levels of renewable energy at the moment, the growth in use of renewable energy sources in Germany has almost doubled over the last ten years, and the German government is a strong supporter of renewable sources. As a result, there is every reason to expect continued growth in the use of renewable energy sources in Germany.
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